Дискусия, теория и бележки за ТТ
Аналогия на системата за световно електроснабдяване:

Аналогия на конвенционалните (двупроводни) електрически схеми:

Вариант на еднопроводна схема.


Цитат:Tesla patent 787412 - earth standing waves

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, Nikola Tesla, a citizen of the United States, residing in the borough of Manhattan, in the city, county, and the State of New York, have discovered a new and useful improvement in the Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy through the Natural Media, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.
It is known since a long time that electric currents may be propagated trhough the earth, and this knowledge has been utilized in many ways in the transmission of signals and the operation of a variety of receiving devices remote from the source of energy, mainly with the object of dispensing with a return conducting-wire. It is also known that electrical disturbances may be transmitted through portions of the earth by grounding only one of the poles of the source, and this fact I have made use of in systems which I have devised for the purposes of transmitting through the natural media intelligible signals or power and which are now familiar; but all experiments and observations heretofore made have tended to confirm the opinion held by the majority of scientific men that the earth, owing to its immense extent, although possesing conducting properties, does not behave in the manner of a conductor of limited dimensions with respect to the disturbances produced, but, on the contrary, much like a vast reservoir or ocean, which while it may be locally disturbed by a commotion of some kind remains unresponsive and quiscient in a large part or as a whole. Still another fact now of common knowledge is that when electrical waves or oscillations are impressed upon such a conducting-path as a metallic wire reflections take place under certain conditions from the ends of the wire, and in consequence of the interference of the impressed and reflected oscillations the phenomenon of “stationary waves” with maxima and minima in definite fixed positions is produced. In any case the existence of these waves indicates that some of the outgoing waves have reached the boundaries of the conducting-path and have been reflected from the same. Now I have discovered that notwhitstanding its vast, dimensions and contrary to all observations heretofore made the terrestrial globe may in a large part or as a whole behave toward disturbances impressed upon it in the same manner as a conductor of limited size, this fact being demonstrated by novel phenomena, which I shall hereinafter describe.
In the course of certain investigations which I carried on for the purpose of studying the effects of lightning discharges upon the electrical condition of the earth I observed that sensitive receiving instriments arranged so as to be capable of responding to electrica disturbances created by the discharges at times failed to respond when they should have done so, and upon inquiring into the causes of this unexpected behaviour I discovered it to be due to the character of the electrical waves which were produced in the earth by the lightning discharges and which had nodal regions following at definite distances the shifting source of the disturbances. From data obtained in a large number of observations of the maxima and minima of these waves I found their length to vary approximately from twenty-five to seventy kilometers, and these results and some theoretical deductions lead me to the conclusion that the waves of this kind may be propagated in all directions over the globe and that they may be of still more widely differing lengths, the extreme limits being imposed by the physical dimensions and properties of the earth. Recognizing in the existance of these waves an unmistakable evidence that the disturbances created had been conducted from their origin to the most remote portions of the globe and had been thence reflected, I conceived the idea of producing such waves in the earth by artifical means with the object of utilizing them for many useful purposes for which they are or may be found applicable. This problem was rendered extremely difficult owing to the immense dimensions of the planet, and consequently enormous movement of electricity or rate at which electrical energy had to be delivered in order to approximate, even in a remote degree, movements or rates which are manifestly attained in the displays of electrical forces in nature and which seemed at first unrealizable by any human agencies; but by gradual and continuos improvements of a generator of electrical oscillations, which I have descibed in my patents Nos. 645,576 and 649,621, I finally succeeded in reaching electrical movements of rates of delivery of electrical energy not only approximating, but, as shown in many comparative tests and measurements, actually surpassing those of lightning discharges, and by means of this apparatus I have found it possible to reproduce whenever desired phenomena in the earth the same as or similar to those due to such discharges. With the knowledge of the phenomena discovered by me and the means at command for accomplishing these results I am enabled not only to carry many operations by the use of known instruments, but also to offer a solution for many important problems of involving the operation or control of remote devices which for want of this knowledge and the absence of these means heretofore been entirely impossible. For example, by the use of such a generator of stationary waves and receiving apparatus properly placed and adjusted in any other locality, however remote, it is practicable to transmit intelligible signals or to control or actuate at will any one or all of such apparatus for many other important and valuable purposes, as for indicating wherever desired the correct  time of an observatory or for ascertaining the relative position of a body or distance of the same with reference to a gicen point or for determining the courses of a moving object, such as vessel at a sea, the distance traversed by the same or its speed, or producing many other useful effects at a distance dependent on the intensity, wave length, direction or velocity of movement, or other feature or property of disturbances of this character.
I shall typically illustrate the manner of applying my discovery by describing one of the specific uses of the same - namely, the transmission of intelligible signals or messages between distant points - and with this object reference is now made to the accompanying drawings in which-
Figure 1 represents diagrammatically the generator which produces stationary waves in the earth, and Fig. 2 an apparatus situated in a remote locality for recording the effects of these waves.
In Fig. 1, A designates a primary coil forming part of a transformer and consisting generally of a few turns of a stout cable of inappreciable resistance, the ends of which are connected to the terminals of a source of powerful electrical oscillations, diagrammatically represented by B. This source is usually a condenser charged to a high potential and discharged in rapid succession through the primary, as in a type of transformer invented by me and not well known; but when it is desired to produce stationary waves of great lengths an alternating dynamo of suitable construction may be used to energize the primary A. C is a spirally-wound secondary coil within the primary having the end nearer to the latter connected to the ground E’ and the other end to an elevated terminal E. The physical constants of coil C, determining its period of vibration, are so chosen and adjusted that the secondary system E’ C E is in the closest possible resonance with the oscillations impressed upon it by the primary A. It is, moreover, of the greatest importance in order to still further enhance the rise of pressure and to increase the electrical movement in the secondary system that its resistance be as small as practicable and its self induction as large as possible under the conditions imposed. The ground should be made with great care, with the object of reducing its resistance. Instead of being directly grounded, as indicated, the coil C may be joined in series or otherwise to the primary A, in which case the latter will be conencted to the plate E’; but be it that none or a part or all of the primary or exciting turns are included in the coil C the total length of the conductor from the ground plate E’ to the elevated terminal E should be equal to one-quarter of the wave length of the electrical disturbance in the system E’ C E or else equal to that length multiplied by an odd number. This relation being observed, the terminal E will be made to coincide with the points of maximum pressure in the secondary or excited circuits, and the greatest flow of electricity will take place in the same. In order to magnify the electrical movement in the secondary as much as possible, it is essential that its inductive connection with the primary A  should not be very intimate, as in ordinary transformers, but loose, so as to permit free oscillation - that is to say, their mutual inductance should be small. The spiral  form of coil C secures this advantage, while the turns near the primary A are subject to a strong inductive action and develop a high initial electromotive force. These adjustments and relations being carefully completed and other constructive features indicated rigorously observed, the electrical movement produced in the secondary system by the inductive action of the primary A will be enormously magnified, the increase being directly proportionate to the inductance and frequency and inversely to the resistance of the secondary system. I have found it practicable to produce in this manner an electrical movement thousand of times greater than the initial - that is, the one impressed upon the secondary by the primary A - and I have thus reached activities or rates of flow of electrical energy in the system E’ C E measured by many tens of thousands of horse-power. Such immense movements of electricity give rise to a variety of novel and striking phenomena, among which are those already described.The powerful electrical oscillations in system E’ C E being communicated to the ground cause corresponding vibrations to be propagated to distant parts of the globe, whence they are reflected and by interference with the outgoing vibrations produce stationary waves the crests and hollows of which  lie in parallel circles relatively to which the ground-plate E’ may be considered to be the pole. Stated otherwise, the terrestrial conductor is thrown into resonance with the oscillations impressed upon it just like a wire. More than this, a number of facts ascertained by me clearly show that the movement of electricity through it follows certain laws with nearly mathematical rigor. For the present it will be sufficient to state that the planet behaves like a perfectly smooth or polished conductor of inappreciable resistance with capacity and self induction uniformly distributed alond the axis of symmetry of wave propagation and transmitting slow electrical oscillations without sensible distortion and attenuation.
Besides the above three requirements seem to be essential to the establishment of the resonating condition.
    First, the earth’s diameter passing through the pole should be an odd multiple of the quarter wavelength- that is , of the ratio between the velocity of light-and four times the frequency of the currents.
    Second. It is neccessary to employ oscillations in which the rate of radiation of energy into space in the form of hertzian or electromagnetic waves is very small. To give an idea, I would say that the frequency should be smaller than twenty thousand per second, though shorter waves may be practicable. The lowest frequency would appear to be six per second, in which case there will be but one node, at or near the ground-plate, and paradoxical as it may seem, the effect will increase with the distance and will be greatest in a region diametrically opposite the transmitter. With oscillations still slower the earth, strictly speaking, will not resonate, but simply act as a capacity, and the variation of potential will be more or less uniform over its entire surface.
    Third. The most essential requirement is, however, that irrespective of frequency the wave or wave-train should continue for a certain interval of time, which I have estimated to be not less than one-twelfth or probably 0.08484 of a second and which is taken in passing to and returning from the region diamettrically opposite the pole over the earth's surface with a mean velocity of about four hundred and seventy-one thousand two hundred and fourty kilometers per second (471 240 km/s).
    The presence of the stationary waves may be detected in many ways. For instance, a circuit may be connected directly or inductively to the ground and to an elevated terminal and tuned to respond more effectively to the oscillations. Another way is to connect a tuned circuit to the ground at two points lying more or less in a meridian passing through the pole E’ or, generally stated, to any two points of a different potential.

Диаметър на земята - 12756.2e3 км.
Обиколка на земята - pi*2r = pi*d = 40074 км.
Скорост на разпространение на вълната при отразена вълна за 0.08484 секунди = 40074/0.08484 = 472 357 км/с (?)

In Fig. 2 I have shown a device for detecting the waves such as I have used in a novel method of magnifying feeble effects which I have described in my Patents Nos. 685,953 and 685,955. It consists of a cylinder D, of insulating material, which is moved at a uniform rate of speed by clockwork or other suitable motive power and is provided with two metal rings F F’, upon which bear brushes a and a’, connected respectively to the terminals P and P’. From the rings F F’ extend narrow metallic segments s and s’, which by the rotation of the cylinder D are brought alternately into contact with double brushes b and b’, carried by and in conctact with conducting-holders h and h’, supported in metallic beargings G and G’, as shown. The latter are connected to the terminals T and T’ of a condenser H, and it should be understood that they are capable of angular displacement as ordinary brush-supports. The object of using two brushes, as b and b’, in each of the holders h and h’is to vary at will the duration of the electric contact of the plates P and P’ with the terminals T and T’, to which is connected a receiving circuit including a receiver R and device d, performing the duty of closing the receiving-circuit at predetermined intervals of time and discharging the stored energy through the receiver. In the present case this device consists of a cylinder made partly of conducting and partly of insulating material e and e’, respectively, which is rotated at the desired rate of speed by any suitable means. The conducting part e is in good electrical connection with the shaft S and is provided with tapering segments f f’, upon which slides a brush k, supported on a conducting-rod l, capable of longitudinal adjustment in a metallic support m. Another brush, n, is arranged to bear upon the shaft S, and it will be seen that whenever one of the segments f’ comes in contact with the brush k, the circuit including the receiver R is completed and the condenser discharged through the same. By an adjustment of the speed or rotation of the cylinder d and a displacement of the brush k along the cylinder the circuit may be made to open and close in as rapid succession and remain open or closed during such intervals of time as may be desired. The plates P and P’, through which the electrical energy is conveyed to the brushes a and a’, may be at considerable distance from each other in the ground or one in the ground and the other in the air, prererably at some height. If but one plate is connected to earth and the other maintained at an elevation, the location of the apparatus must be determined with reference to the position of the stationary waves established by the generator, the effect evidently being greatest in a maximum and zero in a nodal region. On the other hand, if both plates be connected to earth the points of connection must be selected with reference to the difference of potential which is desired to secure, the strongest effect being of course obtained when the plates are at a distance equal to half the wavelength.
Позволявам си да добавя едно писмо от групата wireless_energy_transmission, oотговор на писмото на Gary L Peterson. Следва моят коментар, а оригиналното писмо на Гари е на адрес https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/wire...sages/2116

Цитат:"Should it not be possible to take the full demo apparatus outside and double up on the "virtual ground" wire by adding individual independent ground terminals at the base of the transmitter and receiver helical resonators, and then operate the system with no adverse effect?"

May you clarify? Smile Keep in mind, that the longer the "virtual ground" wire is, the bigger the reactive losses are.

"Meyl's demo system, as presently configured, is not a true representation of the Tesla wireless system; it would probably not be fruitful to engage in further discussion of it at this time; let's save that for another day."

According to me it obeys the same principle. It works on HF though... The losses are much much higher. It is not adequate for deep research, nor for ground transmission.

"So in the [Tesla wireless] system the exposure of the current wave, the magnetic field close to the resonator is reduced and the electric field wave, originating from the big top hat capacitor, is maximized by the high voltage, highly charged electrons in the big capacitor surface.  This Tesla coil system has a poor radio wave radiation and that is also the reason the electric energy does not leak out and stays oscillating in the resonant circuit as long as it is not converted into heat by the losses in the system or coupled out to the load at the receiver side."

Yep, see below.

"In the other the power is transmitted by creating "standing waves" in the earth by charging the earth with a giant electrical oscillator that would make the earth vibrate electrically in the same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer."

Probably the only solution for efficient energy transmission through the ground is utilizing the whole Earth. Read the Tesla's patent for the effective working frequency of about 6 Hz up to 20 kHz:

"Second. It is neccessary to employ oscillations in which the rate of radiation of energy into space in the form of hertzian or electromagnetic waves is very small. To give an idea, I would say that the frequency should be smaller than **twenty thousand per second***, though shorter waves may be practicable. The lowest frequency would appear to be ***six per second***, in which case there will be but one node, at or near the ground-plate, and paradoxical as it may seem, the effect will increase with the distance and will be greatest in a region diametrically opposite the transmitter. With oscillations still slower the earth, strictly speaking, will not resonate, but simply act as a capacity, and the variation of potential will be more or less uniform over its entire surface." (patent 787412)

The patent with my remarks:

"In harmony with these patents it might be called the Earth resonance method, although, once again according to theory, a minimum Tesla coil transmitter power output of approximately 75 kW must be met for the electromagnetic wave energy to propagate globally and be reflected back, for the standing wave pattern to develop.  At lower power levels there is no global propagation nor is there Earth resonance.  This is the case with the small scale sub-global Tesla wireless system demonstration systems that we are working with, in which a passive Tesla coil receiving transformer is used to detect the transmitted energy.  According to Tesla, the propagation is by means of “earth currents,” “currents through the globe,” or “current waves.”"

(Repetition is the mother of knowledge Smile)

An experiment I've conducted about an year ago: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0eyismKiX3I
In this video the Tx's primary is directly fed by the signal generator. The signal at the Rx is measured across the secondary winding (I'm not using the one-turn "primary"). The probe is at 10x in order to reduce the capacitance. It doesn't provide any information about the actual power levels, but shows that the power is effectively transferred through the ground and not through inductive coupling.

I'm not that much into theory, but I'm sure there is no such thing as return path or whatever to close the loop. It is just that one wire or the conductive ground, and the actual transfer is "push-pull". See the three attached images.

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